Nedap PowerRouter PR30S Application Manualline

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PowerRouter application guideline Technical information about a self-use installation

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Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................... 3 Step 1. Assembly.............................................................................................................. 4 Step 2. PowerRouter AC connection................................................................................ 5 External relay for the backup power supply..................................................................... 8 External relay for load management................................................................................. 9 Step 3: Connecting the sensor....................................................................................... 11 Step 4: Connecting the solar strings.............................................................................. 14 Step 5: Connecting the batteries.................................................................................... 17 Step 6: Connecting the internet connection................................................................... 23 Step 7: Initialising the PowerRouter................................................................................ 25 Three-phase self-use system......................................................................................... 27 Glossary......................................................................................................................... 28

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Introduction This document explains, step-by-step, how to install a PowerRouter with batteries (PowerRouter Solar Battery – PRxxSB-BS) to create a self-use system. It also describes important aspects that must be considered during installation. The steps in this document are based on the standard procedure for connecting the system. Detailed information about the installation can be found in the installation manual that comes with the PowerRouter. That manual can be downloaded from www.PowerRouter.com. Nedap recommends you read this manual thoroughly before beginning the installation. If you have any questions during configuration and installation, please get in touch with your local PowerRouter Business Partner. The PowerRouter is intended for use in a single-family household with a maximum service entrance rating of 13.8 kVA. The PowerRouter is the core element of the self-use system, as shown in the following section.

LOCAL OUT 0

1

7

7 6

3

0

1

7

7 6

3

Figure 1: Schematic depiction of a self-use system with PowerRouter

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Step 1. Assembly Important considerations

>  The ingress protection rating of the PowerRouter is IP20 (protected against objects >12.5 mm; not protected against water) >  The PowerRouter must be installed in a well-ventilated room in which the temperature is maintained between -10 and 40 °C. >  Maintain a gap of 30 cm above and below the PowerRouter to allow sufficient ventilation. >  Maintain a gap of 80 cm above and below the PowerRouter when two systems are mounted one above the other. First attach the supplied mounting bracket to the wall. A drill template is provided to help you determine where the holes are to be drilled for the mounting bracket. Use mounting hardware suitable for the wall to which the PowerRouter is being attached. Attach the PowerRouter to the bracket, as shown below.

Drill template the PowerRouter

2x 4x Figure 2: Attaching the PowerRouter to the mounting bracket

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Step 2. PowerRouter AC connection The PowerRouter is a 1-phase inverter that is connected to the utility grid via the ‘AC grid’ connection. Figure 3 is a simplified technical diagram of a self-use system based on the PowerRouter. Although not shown in this drawing, circuit breakers and a master switch must be installed.

AC GRID

CAN

300A

25A

0

1

7

7 6

3

16A Sensor

0

1

7

7 6

3

Figure 3: Technical diagram of a self-use system

The PV counter, designed as an optional extra for the PowerRouter, registers the amount of energy derived from the PowerRouter. The amount of energy fed into the grid and the amount used from the grid are measured using the bi-directional (generation/consumption) meter. These three values enable you to calculate the percentage of self-use.

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Optional backup power supply

The PowerRouter provides users with a self-use system with backup power supply which intervenes in the event of a power outage. The PowerRouter has two AC connections: an AC GRID and an active AC LOCAL OUT. In the event of a grid failure, the PowerRouter will switch selected loads over to AC LOCAL OUT via an external 230V relay*, providing them with power. *Recommended external relay UK: chint – NCI – 9508 – 230 VAC or an equivalent type Recommended external relay rest of Europe: PRA1RLY available from your local PowerRouter distributor

AC GRID

AC LOCAL OUT CAN

25A

25A

300A

0

1

7

7 6

3

230 Vac 95A 16A

0

1

7

7 6

3

Sensor

Figure 4: Connection diagram for a 1-phase self-use system with backup power supply

The mains power supplied to the PowerRouter is connected to the AC GRID terminal (see figure 4) and must be between 180 and 264 VAC at a frequency of 45 to 55 Hz. Backup power is provided from the AC LOCAL OUT connection, and the attached electrical load must be one or more 1-phase devices.

6

Earthing and current system

N

The PowerRouter is compliant with the following earthing systems: TN-S, TN-C, TNC-S or TT.

L

N

L

AC fuse

Nedap recommends that you add a 16 A circuit breaker with B or (preferably) C characteristics to the AC GRID line connection between the PowerRouter and the electric utility meter. We also recommend installing the same type of 16 A circuit breaker in the AC LOCAL OUT line connection. It must be possible for the installation engineer to switch off the circuit breakers to deenergise the PowerRouter so work on the system can be performed safely. RCD rating 16 A

PowerRouter type

NO

AC GRID

NC NO

NC

AC LOCAL OUT

Figure 5: AC connection terminals on the PowerRouter

PR30S

PR30SB-BS PR37S

25 A

PR37SB-BS PR50S

PR50SB-BS

Cable cross section

Nedap recommends you to connect the PowerRouter in the vicinity of the grid connection and use copper cables with a minimum cross section of 4 mm2. This eliminates unnecessary losses in the internal system and also prevents voltage disconnects caused by high grid impedance when supplying a high output current. The diagram below shows that the PowerRouter must increase the AC voltage in order to feed the generated electricity into the grid. This is because the impedance of the cable to the on-street transformer plays an important role in this. However, the home installation is connected to the PowerRouter, so the voltage should never be too high. The PowerRouter software will decrease the output current when this nears the maximum permissible voltage (cut-off limit). This functionality is added to avoid any unnecessary cut-off in the event of an ineffective AC grid.

250 V

20V 1Ω 20A

Figure 6: Influence of grid impedance on AC voltage

230 V

Grid impedance

Street transformer

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External relay for the backup power supply Connecting an external relay

Through use of an external relay, some of the single phase loads can be connected to the AC LOCAL OUT connection on the PowerRouter, which provides backup power during a power outage. This creates a backup system with a switch-over time of ≥ 1 second providing the connected loads with an backup with a stable 230 VAC/50 Hz output. The power provided during a power outage comes simultaneously from the solar energy that is being generated at that moment and from the batteries. It is important to note, however, that only a portion of the loads can be supplied with backup power, because the reserve capacity of a self-use system is limited by the available solar energy and the size of the battery bank. A beneficial aspect of this switching configuration is that loads draw power from the grid whenever the PowerRouter is restarted or in standby.

N

L

NO

AC grid

NC

N

L

AC local out

0

1

7

7 6

3

A1

A2

5

6

R7

R8

3

4

R1

R2

L

N

N L1 L2 L3

0

1

7

7 6

3

N L1 L2 L3

Figure 7: Connecting an external relay for backup power

The PowerRouter has two sets of configurable potential-free contacts. When a grid outage occurs, loads are switched to backup power via an external relay. An advantage to this system is that there is no current flowing through the relay coil during normal use. In addition, the PowerRouter controls the exact moment of switchover, which enables it to bring the current provided at AC LOCAL OUT into synch with the mains current as the grid power is restored. Another advantage is that delay times can be configured, using the PowerRouter Software Installation Tool*. This makes it possible to prevent the backup power provision from responding to brief power interruptions (brown-outs). *For more information about the settings, please consult the PowerRouter application guideline - Software Installation Tool, which you can download from our website.

Technical data - external relay

The external relay can be any standard, commercially available relay with the technical specifications shown below. Europe except UK > Coil voltage: 230 VAC > Contact ratings: 40 A for both N/O and N/C contacts > Contact configuration: 2 contacts, or 2 N/Os and 2 N/Cs > Contact gap: ≥ 3.2 mm

UK > Coil voltage: 230 VAC > Contact ratings: 95 A for both N/O and N/C contacts > Contact configuration: 2 contacts, or 2 N/Os and 2 N/Cs > Contact gap: ≥ 3.2 mm

As indicated in the picture above, only single-phase consumers can be connected to AC LOCAL OUT. When producing backup power, the PowerRouter generates its own AC output which cannot be synchronised with the other two phases.

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External relay for load management Connecting the external relay

To increase self-use it is possible to have the PowerRouter automatically connect larger loads when excess solar energy is available. Below is a circuit diagram which shows how the external relay (p/n PRA1RLY) is controlled by one set of potential-free contacts.

N

L

NO

0

1

7

7 6

3

Activating load management

Load management is activated using the Software Installation Tool. This is done by configuring the parameters as shown below. These values are based on the capacity being fed into the grid, which means that this is power above and beyond what is being used to charge the battery.

NC

AC grid

A1

A2

R7

R8

5

6

R1

R2

3

4

L

N

N L1 L2 L3

0

1

7

7 6

3

N L1 L2 L3

A: The capacity of the consumer to be connected when extra solar energy is available that is not being used to charge the battery. B: The percentage of value A that must be available before the load will be connected. In this example the extra load will be connected once at least 100% of 500 W is being fed back into the grid. C: The percentage of value A at which the load will be disconnected (can be set at 20-200%). In this example, the extra load will be disconnected once the excess power falls below 20% of 500 W. D: Delay in seconds before the load is switched on, once the activation conditions have been met (0-100 seconds). E:  Delay in seconds before the load is switched off, once the deactivation conditions have been met (0100 seconds). F: The maximum time the load will remain connected, regardless of the available solar power. G: The minimum time the load will remain connected, regardless of the available solar power.

Figure 8: Connecting an external relay for load management

Figure 9: Activate load management

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Connecting alarm to potential-free contact Once the alarm settings have been configured, the alarm must be assigned to a set of potential-free contacts. The terminals for these contacts are labelled K201 (relay 1) and K202 (relay 2) and are located to the right of the AC LOCAL OUT connection.

The potential-free contact can be activated in two ways: 1.  Normal: The contact closes when the alarm is activated and opens when the alarm is deactivated. 2.  Pulse: The contact opens and closes at the selected frequency for the configured length of time when the alarm is activated and does so again when the alarm is deactivated.

Figure 10: Relay 1 of 2

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Step 3: Connecting the sensor The 1-phase sensor (p/n PRA1SENSE) or the 3-phase sensor (p/n PRA3SENSE) measures the flow of current to and from the public electricity grid. This enables the PowerRouter to measure the demand from the loads and detect the amount of power being supplied to the grid. When the battery is not fully charged, priority is first given to charging the battery. During the evening and night, when no solar power is being generated, the power needed for the loads in the home is drawn from the battery. The grid and the loads are connected to the PowerRouter’s AC GRID connection via a parallel switch.

1-phase sensor for consumption monitoring

AC Grid N

0

1

7

L

7 6

3

N L

Sensor

0

1

7

7 6

N

3

L

Figure 11: Position of the 1-phase sensor in the self-use system

It is possible to connect a 1-phase sensor to the PowerRouter Solar Inverter (PRxxS) to measure single-phase consumption. It is also possible to connect a 3-phase sensor to the PowerRouter Solar Inverter. The 1-phase sensor must be connected to the external line (L) conductor at a point where it is possible to measure the electricity flowing towards the utility grid. The sensor will only work correctly if the arrow on the sensor is pointing towards the utility grid.

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Figure 12: 1-phase sensor



Figure 13: Connecting the 1-phase sensor

The cable on the sensor is terminated with an RJ45 plug, which must be inserted into the PowerRouter’s CAN terminal. The sensor must be connected to the lower RJ45 socket, which is covered by a blind hole cover (see Figure 13). Remove the blind hole cover and insert the RJ45 plug in the socket. The standard cable length is 1 metre, but it can be extended with a CAT-5e cable having a maximum length of 10 metres by means of a CAT5e cable coupling.

Figure 14: CAT-5e coupling

Figure 15: CAT-5e cable

Important information about the 3-phase grid connection

When a 3-phase grid connection is available the sensor must be connected to the same external conductor to which the PowerRouter is connected. During initialisation of the system, sensor operation is tested to ensure that the system is connected correctly. If the current sensor is not connected correctly, code P105H will appear on the display.

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3-phase sensor

With a 3-phase sensor, load demand can be measured for all three phases at the same time. When used with a generation/consumption meter that is capable of two-way communication, this makes it possible to compensate for consumption on one phase by feeding power into the grid on the other two phases. With this two-way communication, all power flows can be added together, so the meter indicates the total positive or negative balance. In the example below, there is 2.5 kW of consumption and 2 kW of generation, so the meter indicates 0.5 kW of consumption from the grid. The 2 kW of available generated power is fed into the grid on phase 1 to compensate for the consumption drawn from phases 2 and 3. This method enables the 1-phase PowerRouter to work as a 3-phase system. 2 kW 1,5 kW 1 kW

Import Export

4 kW 1,5 kW 1 kW

Import

0.0 kWh 0.5 kWh

Export

1.5 kWh 0 kWh

Figure 16 : How a meter with two-way communication works

The 3-phase sensor must be connected to the home wiring connected directly to the generation/consumption meter, before any branches to consumers in the house. The PowerRouter uses the sensor to measures the amount of energy being consumed at any moment on any phase. The PowerRouter only works with this type of 3-phase sensor (p/n PRA3SENSE), and a 3-phase sensor can only be connected to one PowerRouter. fuse mA fuse 315 315 mA

to to thethe grid grid 11 N 1 L1 4 L2 7 L3

Fuse 315 mA

11

1

4

7

0

1

7

7 6

3

0

1

7

7 6

3

L3 L2 L1 N

SeNSor L3 L2 L1

3

6

9

to the installation

to the installation

9 L3 6 L2 3 L1

41 Green/white wire 42 Green wire 43 Orange/white wire

Figure 17: Connecting a 3-phase sensor

Note: For a more detailed explanation of how to connect the 3-phase sensor, please refer to the manual included with the 3-phase sensor.

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Step 4: Connecting the solar strings Because the PowerRouter’s photovoltaic connections are electrically isolated from the AC section, the PowerRouter can be used with all kinds of solar modules and a wide range of input voltages. Modules that can be connected to the PowerRouter: > Monocrystalline modules > Polycrystalline modules > Thin-layered or amorphous modules The 3.7 and 5 kW versions of the PowerRouter have two isolated photovoltaic connections. The 3kW version only has one photovoltaic connection. MC4 connectors are used for the photovoltaic connections on the PowerRouter. Each photovoltaic connection has its own MPP tracker in order to maximise the output from the modules.

Figure 18: Photovoltaic connections on the PowerRouter

Each input has a wide open-circuit voltage (VOC) range of 150-600 VDC and is designed for a maximum input current of 15 A. Warning: The 600 VDC threshold must never be exceeded. If the 15 A is exceeded, the solar input will limit the current. In the morning, the PowerRouter switches on at around 150 VDC with a power of 40 W based on 2 solar inputs. After switching on, the MPP tracker seeks to provide the best possible power output level; it does so at a voltage level of 100- 480 VDC. The optium MMP-voltage for each string input of the PowerRouter at 25°C ambient temperature is 330Vmmp. The two solar inputs can be used non-symmetrically (e.g. input 1 at 2kWp, input 2 at 4 kWp), but the maximum solar output fed to both inputs at any given moment is limited to 6 kW. If too much current is being supplied, the MPP point will be adjusted to limit the solar power. In the event of gradual changes >6kW (cloud in front of the sun), a power-overload message will appear on the display of the PowerRouter and via myPowerRouter.com.

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Connecting the photovoltaic modules

To optimally configure the solar modules, take a look at our PV calculation tool (available online at www.PowerRouter.com/calculator). You can choose the PowerRouter version and photovoltaic modules you are using. The calculator tool then calculates the correct string configuration for this combination.

Solar cables

Photovoltaic modules often come with short cable connections (usually Ø 4 mm2) with MC4 connectors. If the total length of the free running cable between the modules and the PowerRouter is less than 50 m, Nedap recommends that you use a double-insulated solar cable with a diameter of 4 mm2. If the length exceeds 50 m, we recommend you use 6 mm2 cables. Warning: The plus and minus cables must not be run in the same conduit.

Earthing photovoltaic modules

Earthing varies according to the type of photovoltaic module in use and is different for the fixed frame and thin film types. The contact protection on the metal frame and the frame surrounding the photovoltaic module has a considerable bearing on safety. Nedap therefore recommends that you connect the metal frame to earth. The PowerRouter has an earthing bonding terminal to which an earth cable can also be connected. Since the photovoltaic section of the PowerRouter is also electrically isolated from the AC part, ESD spikes do not affect operation of the PowerRouter. Thin film modules produced by various manufacturers are earthed in different ways; consult the manufacturer’s specifications. For this type of module, one of the connections must be earthed. Depending on the brand/ manufacturer, it may be the frame or the ‘+’ or ‘-’ terminal that is to be earthed. These photovoltaic modules will degrade more quickly if they are not connected to earth. The PowerRouter has been designed with this in mind: it has an earth connection between the photovoltaic connections. Figure 19 provides an overview of the possible earthing configurations. In the case of negative earthing, only 1 ‘-’ input needs to be earthed, because the 2 ‘-’ inputs are connected together inside the PowerRouter. In the case of positive earthing, the special adapted shown in the figure below must be connected to the two inputs.

Figure 19: Ground connection possibilities for photovoltaic modules

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DC disconnection switch

Since the voltage across the photovoltaic connections can be very high, it is important that the PowerRouter can be disconnected from the photovoltaic modules for assembly or maintenance or in an emergency. A DC switch is located on the back side of the PowerRouter. On PowerRouters with two photovoltaic inputs, this switch disconnects both at the same time.

Figure 20: DC disconnection switch on the PowerRouter

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Step 5: Connecting the batteries The PowerRouter has an integrated intelligent 24 Vdc battery manager capable of temperature-compensated charging based on current and voltage regulation, which extends the life of the batteries and improves the charging process of the batteries. This way it also ensures the safety.

Suitable types of battery

Different types of battery can be connected to the PowerRouter. Sealed lead-acid batteries Sealed lead-acid batteries offer good value for the money. These batteries are available in a 2 V version as well as versions that produce a higher voltage (e.g. 12 V), which are made up of multiple 2 V cells. There are two versions of this battery type: gel-cell batteries (with a gel-like electrolyte) and AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat) batteries. Both battery types have a sealed construction and are 100% maintenance-free. Lead-acid wet battery Lead-acid (wet) batteries are also suitable. However, they require more maintenance than the sealed type: for instance, they need to be regularly replenished with distilled water. Charging also generates gas. This means that these batteries must be installed in a well-ventilated room.

Determining the required battery capacity

The purpose of a self-use system is to enable the household to maximise its own use of the solar power it generates. In other words, the batteries must be able to store enough energy to meet the power requirements in the home during the evening and night. The average energy consumption during non-daylight hours can be used to work out the required battery capacity. The battery capacity can be compared using the calculation tool at www.PowerRouter.com. This tool enables you to enter the annual consumption and the consumption profile. The energy that will be available with different battery sizes is shown. The calculation is based on the rule of thumb that 1 kWh is stored for every 100 Ah (24 V) and that a fully-charged battery can be discharged to 50% DOD. Nedap recommends that you connect a battery of at least 150 Ah at 24 V. The capacity value is specified in the battery datasheet as a C10 value (the 10 here stands for the time to discharge). For determining the (optimum) battery capacity it is important to keep three things in mind: 1. Annual household consumption (kWh) 2. Household consumption profile (at home or away during the day) 3. Size of PowerRouter system (kW) Optimum battery capacity recommendations Battery bank with a capacity of at least 200 Ah but not more than 600 Ah 5.0 kW PowerRouter Solar Battery 3.7 kW PowerRouter Solar Battery Battery bank with a capacity of at least 200 Ah but not more than 500 Ah 3.0 kW PowerRouter Solar Battery Battery bank with a capacity of at least 200 Ah but not more than 400 Ah

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Batteries from Nedap

Nedap supplies batteries manufactured by Hoppecke. Each battery bank comes complete with external housing with two fuses and a set of cables. We also supply Enersys batteries which also include a set of cables and a fuse.

Figure 21: Enersys type SBS 190F

Figure 22: Hoppecke type OPzV

Battery service life

A battery’s service life is usually expressed in terms of the number of charge/discharge cycles and the depth of discharge (DOD) value. The number of charge/discharge cycles is high for self-consumption, since energy is drawn from the battery every night. The number of achievable battery cycles drops the higher the depth of discharge (see chart). For this reason, the PowerRouter is configured to limit discharge to 50% by default. Determination of a battery’s service life should be based on the manufacturer’s specifications. A graph like the one shown below (figure 23) is usually provided to indicate the service life (measured in accordance with IEC standards). Looking at the number of cycles, we can assure one cycle per day. This does not include days when the system is in winter mode. Deducting two months of operation in winter mode, this amounts to 300 cycles per year. A cycle is understood to be charging from 50% to 100% and discharging to 50% again. 12000

SBS 190F OPzV

11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Figure 23: Number of cycles versus DOD value

The display and the graphs for the PowerRouter do not show the depth of discharge (DOD), but rather the charging status. This is 100% when the battery is fully discharged and 0% when fully charged. When used for backup power, the battery can discharge to a lower depth than for self-use. At that point more energy is available from the battery. The DOD can be configured using the Software Installation Tool. When using a 3-phase sensor, Nedap recommends limiting the level to which the battery can discharge. This is to avoid discharging the battery too quickly so that the C10 value no longer applies.

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Temperature effects

Ambient temperatures have a large influence on battery capacity. At low temperatures, the capacity drops quickly. This is illustrated in figure 24 (capacity of a gel battery). The temperature of the room where the batteries are installed must therefore be kept above 10 °C.

Maximising battery service life

Batteries must not be left in the discharged state for too long, because doing so reduces their service life. With this in mind, various protection mechanisms have been built into the PowerRouter. Maintenance charging At regular intervals – once every 3 weeks – the battery is forced to run through the 3-state charging cycle. If maintenance charging coincides with a request for self-generated power, charging will take priority. Once the battery is fully charged and the SOC is 100%, maintenance charging is complete and the battery becomes available for self-use again. Likewise, in the winter mode, this cycle of maintenance continues. The battery module is activated and the battery charged to 100%, after which the winter mode is once again activated. It is possible to start or stop the maintenance charging manually in the PowerRouter’s display menu. However, to achieve the maximum service life from the battery, this is not recommended.

Winter mode

This mode is for using the batteries in the winter, when there is less solar output and greater demand. This annual cycle is shown in figure 25, as the blue line which represents total household consumption. Because solar output only now and again exceeds consumption, full charging of the battery occurs less frequently. Longer periods without full charging shorten the service life of the battery. This is the reason for the winter mode, as this protects the battery and ensures a longer service life.

Figure 24: Temperature versus battery capacity

800

Wintermodus

Solar

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

jan

feb mar apr may jun

jul

aug sep okt nov dec

Figure 25: Winter mode

The moment the system is switched to winter mode, maintenance charging begins, to fully charge the battery. Once at maximum charge, the PowerRouter’s battery module is switched off. There is no more self-use from the battery. The period during which the battery is in the winter mode can be programmed with the installation tool. The standard period is from 1 December to 1 February. At the end of this period, the system completely recharges the battery again and it can be used for self-use. It is important to choose this period carefully, taking into account whether or not the system is equipped with a 3-phase sensor. If it is, consumption will be higher than for a 1-phase measurement.

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When in winter mode, maintenance charging continues to be performed as usual. If the PowerRouter is configured to perform maintenance charging once every three weeks, the battery will be fully recharged at this interval. Even in winter mode, the battery is always available to provide backup power. When needed, the battery is reactivated and then used to provide the backup power.

Battery charging methods

The PowerRouter can be configured to use either of the two available battery charging methods: fixed float voltage or 3-state adaptive charging. The 3-state adaptive charging method is best suited for rapid battery charging. This is the best configuration for a self-use system. 3-state adaptive charging In the first stage the battery is charged at a high current until it reaches 70-80% of the battery’s charge capacity (blue line). The battery voltage (green) rises to the bulk voltage during this stage. In the second stage, the voltage applied to the battery remains constant, while the charging current gradually drops to a quarter of the bulk current. This stage ends once the battery has reached approximately 85-90% of its capacity. In stage 3 the charging voltage is reduced to the trickle-charge voltage and the battery is gradually charged to 100%. This final stage lasts the longest.

Figure 26: 3-state adaptive charging

To protect the battery against excessive discharge current, it is possible to limit the discharge power during self-use. This limit value can be configured in the Software Installation Tool. The value that should be set depends on how the batteries are connected (number of parallel branches). When using batteries for which the battery supplier specifies a maximum discharge rate of 100 A, for example, the limit value for four 12V batteries connected in two parallel strings of two should be (2x100Ax24V=) 4800W, but for two 12V batteries connected in a single string (in series) the limit value should be just (100Ax24V=) 2400W. When the system is providing backup power, however, it temporarily disables the limiter.

200A

Battery discharge limiter

100A

12V

12V 100A

12V

12V

Figure 27: Battery discharge limiter

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Cross section of the battery cable

The cross section of the required battery cable depends on the resistance and the contact resistances in the cable. To draw 5 kW from a 24 V battery, more than 200 amps of current flow through the cable. To keep losses as low as possible, the cable must have a sufficient cross section. Nedap recommends the following cable cross sections for the various PowerRouter versions: 5.0 kW system – Copper wire, 95 mm2 3.7 kW system – Copper wire, 70 - 95 mm2 3.0 kW system – Copper wire, 60 - 95 mm2 Place the battery as close as possible to the PowerRouter to keep the cable as short as possible (≤ 2.5 m).

Voltage sense

When using longer battery cables (> 2.5m), Nedap recommends connecting sensor wires for voltage compensation. This enables the PowerRouter to measure the voltage across the poles of the battery before any voltage losses through the cables and connections. Connect a red wire with a 1 A fuse between the ‘+’ pole of the battery and the +BAT terminal on the PowerRouter. Connect a black wire between the ‘-’ pole of the battery and the -BAT terminal on the PowerRouter. We recommend you use stranded wire (not included).

Figure 28: Voltage Sense

Temperature sensor

The temperature sensor measures the temperature of the battery during charging. When the temperature increases too rapidly, the PowerRouter will lower the charging current to protect the battery during charging. For precise measurement, the sensor should be stuck onto one of the batteries near the ‘+’ pole. The firmware has been programmed to automatically perform temperature compensation of 50 mV/°C. If the battery temperature rises above 50 °C, charging/discharging is stopped to protect the battery.

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Fuse

A 300 A (slow-blow) fuse must be installed in the ‘+’ cable to ensure safe installation and use of a battery. In the event of a short circuit on the PowerRouter side, the fuse will interrupt the very high short-circuit current and prevent a dangerous situation. The fuse, including holder, is supplied by Nedap. The matching fuse holder is manufactured by Pudenz and its part number is 177.5701.00.

Figure 29: Fuse with holder

Warning: Make sure the battery terminals are covered with insulating caps during installation. This prevents the possibility of a dangerous short circuit if a conductive object falls across the terminals.

Connecting the battery measuring devices to the PowerRouter

The current shunt, voltage sense and temperature sensor are connected to the PowerRouter via the connecting rail provided for this purpose (see figure 30).

+BAT -BAT TMPS GND SH+ SH-

(-) pole PowerRouter

- Black

SH- wire (grey) Battery sense

+Red

Temperature sensor

SH+ wire (orange)

(+) pole battery

Figure 30: Connecting the battery measuring devices to the PowerRouter

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Step 6: Connecting the internet connection Internet connection

The PowerRouter has two (RJ45) sockets, one of which has a blind hole cover (intended for the sensor). The upper socket is used for connecting to the Internet. The PowerRouter uses this connection to send log data to the Nedap server once per minute, which can then be read and monitored remotely. These log data are available to customers, installation engineers and dealers at myPowerRouter.com. The information provided by this webportal can be found in the myPowerRouter.com brochure. This functionality is provided free of charge.

Figure 31: RJ45 connection for the Internet connection

Communication

The PowerRouter communicates with the internet via port 80. This port must be available in the network. A second condition is that the internet router in the network must provide dynamic IP addresses. Installation engineers can use the display on the PowerRouter to check whether the PowerRouter has an active server connection (via ‘Status internet connection’ in the control menu).

Figure 32: Internet setup

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Monitoring – myPowerRouter.com

Installation engineers and dealers can use the monitoring function in the myPowerRouter.com web portal to monitor the status of the PowerRouter remotely. When a customer phones with a question or to report a problem, the installation engineer or dealer can check the system and possibly even correct the problem without ever leaving the office. This function can also be used to perform updates on the PowerRouter. The monitoring function is also what makes it possible to provide the widgets on the website. The widget shown in figure 33, for example, displays the system’s percentage of self-use. Another widget, shown in figure 34, shows the percentage of the solar energy which has been generated and used in the home.

Figure 33: Chart showing the self-use value (available on my.PowerRouter.com)

The self-use widget indicates the level of autonomy of the installation in relation to the power grid. In this example, 27% of the energy required still has to be drawn from the grid.

Figure 34: Percentage of self-generated energy

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Step 7: Initialising the PowerRouter Perform the following steps to put a PowerRouter in service: 1: Connect a charged battery to the PowerRouter 2: Switch on the connection to the solar strings with the switch on the base of the PowerRouter 3: Connect the PowerRouter to the grid power supply 4: Switch on the PowerRouter with the switch to the right of the display The display now shows a message indicating that the PowerRouter can be configured in one of two ways.

On the PowerRouter display

Press the ‘yes’ button for help when initialising the system for the first time. Follow the instructions on the display, and use the keys adjacent to the display to control the system.

With the aid of the Software Installation Tool (USB)

Use the Software Installation Tool to put the PowerRouter in service. This tool not only allows you to initiate the PowerRouter, but also to make extensive changes to the settings or, if necessary, to upgrade the PowerRouter’s firmware. To upgrade the firmware you need a USB cable and a laptop or PC with the Software Installation Tool. In addition to an internet connection, there is also a USB connection with which the PowerRouter can be connected to a computer. Before the Software Installation Tool can be used, it must be installed on the laptop/computer. The software installation tool can be downloaded from the following website: www.PowerRouter.com (you need to create an account to access this website). The installation tool can be used to install a new firmware version on the PowerRouter. This means that if an old firmware version has been installed on the PowerRouter, it can be upgraded with a new version. The installation tool includes the latest firmware version so that no further downloads are required. To install, open the software installation tool with ‘setup_installtool.exe’ (which has been downloaded from the PowerRouter website). Click the ‘Start installation’ icon to change the settings. This allows you to change the language and date and time settings, for example.

Figure 35: USB connection

Figure 36: Start screen software installation tool

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Battery parameters

For the PowerRouter Solar Battery, it is necessary to configure a number of battery parameters to achieve optimal operation. These data can be entered using the Software Installation Tool or the installation help on the display. Capacity Capacity of the connected 24 V batteries. Specified on the battery datasheet, with discharge time. Example C10 200 Ah: This means that the battery capacity is 200 Ah if it is fully discharged within 10 hours (around 1 night). If a C10 value is not specified, enter the closest C value. For the system to work well, the capacity must be between 150 Ah and 1000 Ah. On a 5kW system, Nedap recommends a battery capacity of 350 - 450 Ah. Charge current Maximum battery charging current. Nedap recommends 1/4 or 1/5 of the capacity. Type Battery type: Lead acid, wet or gel Charging method 3-state adaptive or fixed voltage Vfloat Fixed charging voltage. Specified on the battery datasheet. Warning: The voltage is often given PER CELL and must be multiplied by the number of cells in the battery. Use the standard settings if the charging voltage is not specified. Vbulk Bulk charge voltage, also called ‘boost’. Specified on the battery datasheet. Warning: The voltage is given PER CELL. This must be multiplied by the number of cells of the battery. Use the standard settings if the bulk voltage is not specified.

Software Installation Tool settings

These battery parameters can be changed via the Software Installation Tool. In addition to these, there are many other settings possible. More information about the options for the settings can be found in the Application guideline – Software Installation Tool, which can be found on the website: www.PowerRouter.com.

Figure 37: Software Installation Tool settings

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Three-phase self-use system The PowerRouter is a 1-phase inverter. It can be used to supply the energy to a single external conductor. Three PowerRouters and three battery banks allow you to set up a 15kW system which optimises self-use on three phases.

PowerRouter in the three-phase system

The PowerRouter Solar Battery can be deployed in a three-phase self-use network. A PowerRouter with its own, independent photovoltaic strings and independently connected batteries can be connected between each external conductor and the Neutral conductor (it is not possible to use a common battery bank for all three PowerRouters). The PowerRouter synchronises to the frequency of the power on the external AC mains conductor when feeding back to the utility grid. This ensures that the 120° phase shift between the three phases of a 3-phase system is maintained. Figure 38 shows how the PowerRouters should be connected in a three-phase network. PowerRouter 1

PowerRouter 2

PowerRouter 3

N

N

N

AC Grid

0

1

7

AC Grid

L

7 6

3

0

1

7

AC Grid

L

7 6

3

0

1

7

L

7 6

3

L3 L2 L1 N

0

1

7

7 6

3

Sensor N

L1

L2

L3

Figure 38: The PowerRouter in a three-phase self-use system

A system with three PowerRouters, each with its own battery bank, cannot be used for three-phase backup power. The PowerRouter is not capable of delivering three phases itself, it can only match the three phases of the grid power. Single-phase backup power is possible, however. If 1-phase sensors are used, the maximum length of an extension cable for the sensor is 10 metres. If this is still too short, 3-phase sensors can be used, which should be configured as 1-phase sensors. In the manual for the 3-phase sensor, this configuration is designated ‘1p’.

More than one PowerRouter on single-phase

If the system is suitable for this purpose, it is possible to connect more than one PowerRouter Solar Inverter (PRxxS) on single-phase. This is different however, when you use a PowerRouter Solar Battery (PRxxSB-BS). Because this system uses a sensor to measure consumption levels, the readings are subject to interference from other transformers which have a parallel connection on the phase. This results in incorrect readings on a number of graphs on myPowerRouter.com (e.g. consumption). However, its actual functioning will not be disrupted; the self-use system provides more solar output for charging the battery.

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Glossary 1-phase sensor Sensor that is clamped around the phase conductor which measures the direction and magnitude of the current into the grid. 3-phase sensor This sensor senses the current flow on all three phases of the grid connection at the same time. 3-stage charging Charging method in which a battery is charged in three stages, each with different characteristics.

Autonomy time An indication of how long power can be provided to the connected load in the event of a grid outage. This is dependent on the load, the solar output and the capacity of the connected batteries. External relay An electromechanical switch used to control load management or activate backup power. 120° phase shift Phase shift between L1-L2, L1-L3, L2-L3 to implement a 3-phase AC network. +BAT/-BAT Connection for voltage measurement. Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) In a ‘normal’ AGM battery, the plates are placed next to each other. Otherwise, they are similar to a spiral cell battery: the electricity is stored in glass fibres. These batteries can actually be deployed anywhere. The advantage lies in the fact that it is possible to replace any of the batteries. You can draw large currents without damaging the battery. The specified service life is 5 to 10 years. AC Local Out The PowerRouter has a unique function that provides an uninterrupted power supply in applications with a grid connection. The PowerRouter can provide a steady voltage of 230 VAC/50 Hz even if the public grid fails. The PowerRouter switches from grid electricity to solar energy and battery current within milliseconds, with no interruption to the power supply. If the grid fails, the PowerRouter is automatically disconnected from the grid and will reconnect once the grid is stable again. This protects the connected loads from power disruptions.

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Backup time Indicates how long the connected load can be supplied with energy in the event of a grid failure. This depends on the continuous load. C10 value

Capacity of the battery when discharged in 10 hours.

CAN terminal Controller Area Network (CAN), a standard for the serial databus. CAT-5e cable

Identifies the quality of a UTP network cable.

Charge cycle A cycle is understood to be charging from 50% to 100% and discharging to 50% again. Contact numbering

Connection contact numbers of a relay.

DC disconnection switch Switch used to disconnect the DC circuit between the PowerRouter and solar strings. DOD

Depth of Discharge of the battery.

Drill template Paper template to help drill the holes for the PowerRouter mounting bracket in exactly the right position. Dynamic feed-in limiter This enables the PowerRouter to limit the amount of energy fed into the grid. The sensor measures the power at the grid connection point to ensure that the set limit is adhered to. ESD

ElectroStatic Discharge.

External conductor In the light network, the “external conductor” is the wire which has an electrical coupling with the light network voltage. Together with the Neutral conductor, the external conductor guides the electrical current from and to the connected devices. The external conductor is normally identified with the designation L1, L2 or L3 in a circuit diagram. Float charging

Charging the battery with a fixed voltage.

Grid impedance Impedance measured from the source to the load and from the load back to the source. Load management Connecting an additional consumer if extra solar energy is available. Maintenance charging

Periodic charging cycle to fully charge the battery.

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Monocrystalline solar modules Monocrystalline solar cells have an extremely regular crystal structure which arises through the controlled cooling of liquid, pure silicon. Monocrystalline cells are easily identified by the separate disks and their black colour. MPP tracker Maximum Power Point Tracker; allows the inverter to use the largest possible output from the photovoltaic modules under various conditions. MPP voltage

DC solar voltage (V) supplied at the maximum output.

Open circuit range Open terminal voltage of a solar module/solar string. The voltage is measured across the photovoltaic connection, which means there is no load across the solar modules. Overcurrent fuse A protective device in the supply part of an electrical system. The circuit breaker disconnects the electrical circuit when the current entering the system becomes too high. Photovoltaic connection Connection for the solar modules, generally via an MC4 connector. Polycrystalline solar modules Polycrystalline solar cells (also known as multicrystalline). Like monocrystalline cells, except that the effectiveness of these cells is generally somewhat lower and they are dark blue in colour. Port 80 The port on an internet router which the PowerRouter uses to communicate with the Nedap web server. RJ45 connector

Plastic connector with 8 contacts.

SOC

State of Charge of the battery.

Software Installation Tool The Software Installation Tool not only enables you to initiate the PowerRouter, but also to make extensive changes to the settings or provide the PowerRouter with the latest firmware. Temperature sensor Sensor which is installed on the battery. Measures the battery temperature to protect the battery and optimise charging. Thin-layered or amorphous modules A layer of amorphous silicon is deposited over a . This is known as the thin film method. Since relatively small amounts of silicon are used, the effectiveness of this method is lower than with crystalline modules, but it costs considerably less.

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TN-S/TN-C/TNC-S/TT Earthing systems. TN-S system: PE and N are separate conductors that are connected together only near the power source. TN-C system:a combined PEN conductor fulfills the functions of both a PE and an N conductor. TN-C-S system: part of the system uses a combined PEN conductor, which is at some point split up into separate PE and N lines. TT system with neutral conductor: the protective earth connection of the consumer is provided by a local connection to earth, independent of any earth connection from the grid. IT system with neutral conductor: the electrical distribution system has no connection to earth at all. Voltage measurement Voltage measurement directly across the battery terminals. The voltage drop across the battery cables is compensated for. See +Bat/-Bat. Winter mode Period in which the batteries are protected against low battery charging.

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